July 2009

When we chat on yahoo every thing goes through the server.Only when we chat thats messages. When we send files yahoo has 2 options
a) Either it uploads the file and then the other client has to down load it.Read more..
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Space is a hostile environment. No atmosphere, extreme variations in temperature and almost no energy sources, where even the slightest of mistakes can lead to a disaster. The vast emptiness of space is filled with radiation, mostly from the sun.

A normal computer unless given proper shielding will not be able to work properly. Thus special types of chips- rad hard chips are used.

Radiation hardened chips are made by two methods: -Read more..

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In recent years there has been rapid development in the wireless seector due to demand for wire free connectivity. Most of the development was focused on high data rate applications like file transfer etc with new standards like Bluetooth emerging.
During this time applications that required lower data rates but had some other special requirements were neglected in the sense that no open standard was available.
Either these applications we abandoned in the wireless arena or implemented using proprietary standards hurting the interoperability of the system.
ZigBee is a wireless standard that caters to this particular sector. Potential applications of ZigBee include Home Automation, Wireless Sensor Networks, Patient monitors etc.Read more..
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Parallelism and locality are the key application characteristics exploited by computer architects to make productive use of increasing transistor counts while coping with wire delay and power dissipation. Conventional sequential ISAs provide minimal support for encoding parallelism or locality, so high-performance implementations are forced to devote considerable area and power to on-chip structures that extract parallelism or that support arbitrary global communication. The large area and power overheads are justified by the demand for even small improvements in performance on legacy codes for popular ISAs. Many important applications have abundant parallelism, however, with dependencies and communication patterns that can be statically determined. ISAs that expose more parallelism reduce the need for area and power intensive structures to extract dependencies dynamically.Read more..
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Imaging technology has a rich history that began thousands of years ago. The reflection from a pool of still water or a shiny metal surface was arguably the first imaging method routinely used by mankind. With the advent of lenses, many other novel forms of optical imaging emerged, including telescopes and microscopes.

Using a lens, a pinhole camera, and a sensitized pewter plate, Niépce was the first person to permanently record an image. Optical photography and other forms of optical imaging have since become commonplace.Read more..

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This paper examines some aspects of the architecture of embedded DRAM (dynamic random access memory), its applications and its advantages over other conventional memory types.

Embedded DRAM (eDRAM) – the concept of merging DRAM with logic on a single device – has become increasingly popular, thanks to the growth of existing and emerging high bandwidth applications such as graphics processing, backbone and access router data communications systems and base stations for mobile phones.

A common requirement of all these designs is that they have to process very large amounts of data at very high speeds. Because of this, a fundamental design requirement is the ability to provide high performance, high speed memory access.Read more..

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Silicon photonics can be defined as the utilization of silicon-based materials for the generation (electrical-to-optical conversion), guidance, control, and detection (optical-to-electrical conversion) of light to communicate information over distance.

The most advanced extension of this concept is to have a comprehensive set of optical and electronic functions available to the designer as monolithically integrated building blocks upon a single silicon substrate.

Within the range of fibre optic telecommunication wavelength (1.3 µm to 1.6 µm), silicon is nearly transparent and generally does not interact with the light, making it an exceptional medium for guiding optical data streams between active components.Read more..

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There is an increasing need for internetworking between telephone and computer networksRead more..

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The World Energy Consumption rate is increasing at an alarming rate leading to an unbalanced energy management. We depend mainly on the non-renewable resources, for our power, which are soon getting depleted. While there is no sign that this growth in demand will abate particularly amongst the developing nations, there is now an awareness of the transience of non-renewable resources and the irreversible damage caused to the environment. The fast growing technology demands from us, small, light power sources that are able to sustain operation over a long period of time.Read more..

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In the 1980s, people feared neutron bombs that could kill everyone but leave buildings, roads, and cars intact. Today, we should fear a different kind of nuclear threat that can instantaneously destroy power grids, electronic systems, and communications along an entire coast but spare people.Read more..

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Fast internet access is growing from a convenience into a necessity in all aspects of our daily lives. Unfortunately, this has been held back by the high expenses of wiring infrastructure essential to deliver such high-speed internet access especially to private homes, small offices and rural areas, where the installation of any kind of new wires tilts the scales of the economic feasibility to a non-profitable state. This problem is known as the “last mile problem” which has been an active area of research throughout research community.Read more..

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PCI Express is positioned as the industry's third-generation I/O technology. First generation was ISA, second generation being PCI, and the third generation, PCI Express. PCI Express is designed to be a general-purpose serial I/O interconnects that can be used in multiple market segments, including desktop, mobile, server, storage and embedded communications. PCI Express can be used as a peripheral device interconnects, a chip-to-chip interconnects, and a bridge to other interconnects like 1394b, USB2.0, and Ethernet. It can also be used in graphics chipsets for increased graphics bandwidth. PCI Express is an implementation of the PCI computer bus that uses existing PCI programming concepts and communications standards, but bases it on a much faster serial communications system. PCI Express is intended to be used as a local bus only. The PCI Express multi-drop, parallel bus topology provides Host Bridge and several endpoints. This introduces a new element, the switch into the system which replaces the multi drop bus and is used to provide fan-out for the I/O bus.Read more..
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The popularity of mobile computing and communications devices can be traced to their ability to deliver information to users when needed. Users want ubiquitous access to information and applications from the device at hand, plus they want to access and update this information on the fly. 

The ability to use applications and information on one mobile device, then to synchronize any updates with the applications and information back at the office, or on the network, is key to the utility and popularity of this pervasive, disconnected way of computing. Read more..

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While magnetic and semi-conductor based information storage devices have been in use since the middle 1950 s, today s computers and volumes of information require increasingly more efficient and faster methods of storing data. While the speed of integrated circuit random access memory (RAM) has increased steadily over the past ten to fifteen years, the limits of these systems are rapidly approaching. In response to the rapidly changing face of computing and demand for physically smaller, greater capaticy, bandwidth, a number of alternative methods to integrated circuit informationWhile magnetic and semi-conductor based information storage devices have been in use since the middle 1950 s, today s computers and volumes of information require increasingly more efficient and faster methods of storing data.Read more..
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Artificial Intelligence has long been considered as fruit of our intentions to realize nature in our mechanized- human lives; just as aero planes were, of our desire to fly with like the birds of flight. Case-based reasoning (CBR), is the process of solving new problems based on the solutions of similar past problems. An auto mechanic who fixes an engine by recalling another car that exhibited similar symptoms is using case-based reasoning. A lawyer who advocates a particular outcome in a trial based on legal precedents or a judge who creates case law is using case-based reasoning. Case-based reasoning is a prominent kind of analogy making. 

It has been argued that case-based reasoning is not only a powerful method for computer reasoning, but also a pervasive behavior in everyday human problem solving. Or, more radically, that all reasoning is based on past cases experienced or accepted by the being actively exercising choice – prototype theory – most deeply explored in human cognitive science. Read more..

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As cell phones become a part and parcel of our life so do the threats imposed to them is also on the increase. Like the internet, today even the cell phones are going online with the technologies like the edge, GPRS etc. This online network of cellphones has exposed them to the high risks caused by malwares viruses, worms and Trojans designed for mobile phone environment. The security threat caused by these malwares are so severe that a time would soon come that the hackers could infect mobile phones with malicious software that will delete any personal data or can run up a victimAs cell phones become a part and parcel of our life so do the threats imposed to them is also on the increase. Like the internet, today even the cell phones are going online with the technologies like the edge, GPRS etc. This online network of cellphones has exposed them to the high risks caused by malwares viruses, worms and Trojans designed for mobile phone environment.Read more..
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 The technology called 4G has redefined the whole concept of today’s sophisticated communication. According to the Wireless World Research Forum (WWRF), 4G is a combination of wired and wireless networks in computer, consumer electronics and communication technology systems based on the internet technology, that can merge applications like the Wi-Fi and WiMAX capable of transmitting at a speed ranging from 100 Mbps (in cell-phone networks) to 1 Gbps (in local Wi-Fi networks).

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Engineering revision control developed from formalized processes based on tracking revisions of early blueprints or bluelines. Implicit in this control was the option to be able to return to any earlier state of the design, for cases in which an engineering dead-end was reached in iterating any particular engineering design. Likewise, in computer software engineering, revision control is any practice which tracks and provides controls over changes to source code. Software developers sometimes use revision control software to maintain documentation and configuration files as well as source code. In theory, revision control can be applied to any type of information record. In practice, however, the more sophisticated techniques and tools for revision control have rarely been used outside software development circles (though they could actually be of benefit in many other areas).Read more..

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Terahertz (THz) research has received much attention recently. This development is due to the discovery of new THz-radiation sources and detectors such as quantum cascade lasers, photoconductive switches or electro-optic THz- detectors during the last decade. Of particular intereset are broadband Thz-spectroscopy and imaging systems operating in the frequency range 0.1-10THz.Read more..

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